[9][10][11] people in Iraqi Kurdistan have converted to Zoroastrianism from a Muslim background since 2015, with the first new Zoroastrian temples being built and opened in 2016. This style of urban planning contrasted with Ancient Greek and Roman urban planning, in which cities are designed as squares or rectangles with streets intersecting each other at right angles. Shrines of the prophet Jonah and Saint George are also located there, and various other biblical prophets and saints are said to have been originally from there as well. ^ "The World Factbook". It changed the envelope of the ethnic distribution of the city. Over half of Christians have fled the country since the U.S.-led invasion with almost 59,000 granted refugee-status citizenship in the United States. The biggest ethnic displacement came across in Baghdad in early 2007(figure3), the segregation of Baghdad was pretty much completed. The city was also home to a large Jewish community and regularly visited by Sikh pilgrims. [8], The name Baghdad is pre-Islamic, and its origin is disputed. There, local councils were elected from 20 neighbourhoods (Nahia) and these councils elected representatives from their members to serve on six district councils (Qada). [57] This would prove to be the last great library built by the caliphs of Baghdad. The number of neighbourhood representatives on a district council is based upon the neighbourhood's population. [12] In time, Armenia and Assyria became "Kurdistan". The city has Shia, Sunni, Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriacs, Armenians and mixed neighborhoods. Phebe Marr noted that 'in the north too, many of the Kurdish tribes of Persia migrated to Iraq'. Iraq's indigenous Assyrian people represent roughly 3% of the population (earlier CIA Factbook), mostly living in Northern Iraq, concentrated in the Ninewa and Dahukgovernorates. Assyrian activist have claimed that the number of Christians live in Iraqi Kurdistan have reduced. Nahren Anweya, Assyrian American Christian activist (1982–present) and was the first woman to leak the ISIS invasion against the Christians on national media. In October, security forces opened fire on protesters in Baghdad, killing 10 and wounding 286. The earliest was that of the famous Al-Ma'mun, who was caliph from 813 to 833. [15][16], On 21 September 2016, the first official Zoroastrian fire temple of Iraqi Kurdistan opened in Sulaymaniyah. The UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1483 on 22 May 2003, which formally ended sanctions against Iraq and recognized the US as an official occupier. In recent years, the city has been frequently subjected to insurgent attacks, resulting in a substantial loss of cultural heritage and historical artifacts as well. He noted that "some ten thousand families, comprising seventy thousand souls, were constantly moving across the border". Many of the victim's bodies were then dragged through the streets of Baghdad. The Tigris and the Euphratescarry about 70 million cubic meters of silt annually from this plain down to the delta. [13], The Assyrian Church of the East has its origin in what is now South East Turkey and Assuristan (Sassanid Assyria). Ethnic maps shows Shia(grey), Sunn(black) and mixed neighbourhoods(striple). Likewise, Samarra is home to the al-Askari Mosque, containing the mausoleums of the Ali al-Hadi and Hasan al-Askari, the tenth and eleventh Shia Imams, respectively, as well as the shrine of Muhammad al-Mahdi, known as the "Hidden Imam", who is the twelfth and final Imam of the Shia of the Ja'farī Madhhab. Mackensen, Ruth Stellhorn . The University of Baghdad is the largest university in Iraq and the second largest in the Arab world. Each gate had double doors that were made of iron; the doors were so heavy it took several men to open and close them. The bricks used to make the city were 18 inches (460 mm) on all four sides. Mutanabbi Street is located near the old quarter of Baghdad; at Al Rasheed Street. 32-37% Sunni. [110], Most Iraqi reconstruction efforts have been devoted to the restoration and repair of badly damaged urban infrastructure. ISIS countered with the capture of Ramadi, the capital of the western province of Anbar in May, after a series of car bombs. [21][22][unreliable source?] At that time, three possible locations had been identified, but no estimates of cost or completion date were given. The largest by far is the nation's capital, Baghdad, with a population of 9.5 million. Thousands of Iraqis gathered at several peaceful demonstrations against the “Baghdad Wall” with the message that should Baghdad be divided into separate, sectarian-based enclaves, this would create more tension and long-term problems in the governorate. The following is a selection (rather than a complete list) of these neighborhoods: The city is located on a vast plain bisected by the Tigris river. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. In fact, the declined of violence also profound influenced by the surge created by the U.S. government. Four Great Libraries of Medieval Baghdad. In 1991 and 2003, the Gulf War and the 2003 invasion of Iraq caused significant damage to Baghdad's transportation, power, and sanitary infrastructure as the US-led coalition forces launched massive aerial assaults in the city in the two wars. There are about 60,000 estimated Mandaeians living in Iraq. The city of Kufa was home to the famed Sunni scholar Abu Hanifah, whose school of thought is followed by a sizable number of Sunnis across the globe. It was reported that Kurdish security forces also "prevented" ballot boxes to pass to some Christian villages fearing that they will support the central Iraqi government. In March 2015, the Iraqi military achieved its first strategic victory, driving ISIS out of Tikrit. On 31 May, after the resulting Anglo-Iraqi War and after Rashid Ali and his government had fled, the Mayor of Baghdad surrendered to British and Commonwealth forces. The population estimate in 1920 was 3 million. Although such figures are rare and their accuracy is undeterminable, it is clear that a majority of those who became displaced within Baghdad between 2006 and 2007 (which is often referred to as a period of civil war) were Shia. It changed the envelope of the ethnic distribution of the city. [17], There are no accurate numbers on the population of Zoroastrians in Iraq because they are listed as "Muslims" on their government-issued documents.[18]. In the year of Iraq's formal independence, 1933, the Iraqi military carried out large-scale massacres against the Assyrians (Simele massacre) which had supported the British colonial administration before. Regional services, however, are coordinated and carried out by a mayor who oversees the municipalities. Additionally, several reports have been written about those Christians who do not get "political" representation and therefore do not succeed in expanding their schools, and are shut out from all but the most basic funding. [4] Under this regime, the predominantly ethnically and linguistically distinct Assyrians were pressured to identify as Arabs. In 2008, the charity Barnabas conducted research into 250 Iraqi Christian IDPs who had fled to the north of the country (Iraqi Kurdistan) to seek refugee status and found nearly half had witnessed attacks on churches or Christians, or been personally targeted by violence. The day after the American departure, Prime Minister Al Maliki ordered the arrest of President Tariq al-Hashimi, the nation’s highest-ranking Sunni, on charges of murder and terrorism. King Faisal II, former Prime Minister Nuri as-Said, former Regent Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, members of the royal family, and others were brutally killed during the coup. A Chaldo-Assyrian leader described the Kurdish campaign to Human Rights Watch as “the overarching, omnipresent reach of a highly effective and authoritarian regime that has much of the population under control through fear. [54] Some cases of illegal land and property seizures of Assyrian Christian lands by KDP members were also claimed.[54]. The city was founded in 762 as the capital of the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, and for the next 500 years it was the most significant cultural center of Arab and Islamic civilization. In 2008, a priest called Ragheed Ganni, was shot dead in his church along with three of his companions. Baghdad (/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بَغْدَاد‎ [baɣˈdaːd] (listen)) is the capital of Iraq and one of the largest cities in the Arab world, and compared to its large population it has a small area at just 673 square kilometers. The days of mixed neighborhoods are gone… If anyone is telling you that the cleansing of Baghdad has not contributed to the fall in violence, then they either simply do not understand Baghdad or they are lying to you.” [1].

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